What We Know About What We Don’t Know About Studying Terrorism
Terrorism is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that has been studied extensively by scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. However, despite the abundance of research on the topic, there is still a significant amount of uncertainty surrounding the causes and consequences of terrorism. In this article, we will explore the state of the field of terrorism studies and examine what we know and don’t know about this important issue.
One of the key challenges in studying terrorism empirically is defining the term. Different scholars and organizations have proposed various definitions of terrorism, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” This definition focuses on the illegal nature of the act and the political or ideological motivation behind it. On the other hand, the United Nations (UN) defines terrorism as “any act intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act.” This definition emphasizes the harm caused to civilians and the intent to intimidate or influence a government or organization.
Another challenge in studying terrorism is the lack of reliable data. Many terrorist groups do not claim responsibility for their attacks, making it difficult to attribute them to a specific group or individual. Additionally, the data that is available is often incomplete or inconsistent, making it difficult to draw robust conclusions. Furthermore, the data that is available often depends on the source of collection, for example, the media or an official report. This makes it challenging to have a broad sense of the overall trends and patterns in terrorist activity.
Despite these challenges, a number of empirical studies have been conducted on the causes of terrorism. One of the most widely accepted explanations is the “grievance theory,” which argues that terrorism is a result of perceived political, economic, or social grievances. Scholars have argued that these grievances, such as poverty, inequality, and political repression, can lead individuals or groups to resort to terrorism as a means of expressing their frustration and achieving their goals.
However, it is important to note that not all individuals or groups with similar grievances will engage in terrorist activity. There are a variety of individual and group-level factors that can influence a person’s decision to engage in terrorism. These factors can include psychological ones, such as a desire for revenge or a belief in a just cause, as well as social ones, such as peer pressure or recruitment by a terrorist organization.
Another important area of research in terrorism studies is the impact of terrorism on society. Studies have shown that terrorism can have a significant impact on a country’s economy, with some estimates suggesting that the cost of terrorist attacks can reach billions of dollars. Additionally, terrorist attacks can lead to increased public fear and mistrust of government, as well as a decline in tourism and foreign investment.
However, it is important to note that the impact of terrorism on society can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the severity of the attack and the response of the government and society. Additionally, the long-term impact of terrorism is not well understood, and more research is needed to fully understand the consequences of terrorist attacks on individuals, communities, and societies.